Fossil fuels are non-renewable energy sources formed from the remains of dead animals and plants. It takes millions of years to complete the entire process and it is important to conserve fossil fuels because once these are extracted they will be finished forever. Some examples of fossil fuels are Petroleum, Coal and Natural Gas.
Deforestation is the removal or the clearance of forests for their non-forest use or urbanization. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestlands to ranches, farms, mining for coal or for building cities. Trees play a huge role in the carbon cycle. They convert the CO2 in the air to oxygen, through the process of photosynthesis, and in this way, they can be looked at as a natural regulator of carbon dioxide. Trees help in the reducing CO2 and increasing oxygen in the atmosphere. The removal of trees is causing an increase in CO2 which in turn is leading to global warming.
Water harvesting means collecting rain water through various methods. It means capturing rain where it falls or collecting the runoff water in ponds, lakes, tanks etc. This water can be used in gardening, for irrigation and also for recharging groundwater. In certain cases, the harvested water can also be used as drinking water.
Madhya Pradesh, the second largest state in India, has many national parks that harbour a major population of tigers. Some of include Kanha National Park, Panna National Park, Pench Tiger Reserve, Madhav National Park etc.
Global warming and climate change refer to an increase in average global temperatures. Generally, the natural events and human activities are believed to be contributing to an increase in average global temperatures. This is caused primarily by increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2).
To understand the phenomena of climate change and global warming, clarity in the concept of climate system is necessary. The climate system is a complex system consisting of the atmosphere, land surface, snow and ice, oceans and other bodies of water, and living things. The climate is often defined as ‘average weather’. It is usually described in terms of the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation and wind over a period, ranging from months to millions of years.
The climate system evolves under the influence of its own internal dynamics and to changes in external factors that affect climate (called ‘forcings’). External forcing includes natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and solar variations, as well as human-induced changes in atmospheric composition. Solar radiation powers the climate system.
‘Climate change’ refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be identified by changes in the mean and/or the variability of its properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer. Climate change may be due to internal processes and/or external forcings. Some external influences, such as changes in solar radiation and volcanism, occur naturally and contribute to the changes in the climate system. It has been established that human activity also contributes to such changes.