Telangana State Government is endeavouring to increase the productivity of agriculture sector while ensuring the profits of the farmer increases. About 55.49% of state's population in Telangana is dependent on agriculture & allied sectors for their livelihoods. Agriculture in Telangana is dependent on rainfall. The average annual rainfall in the state is about 906 mm, 80 percent of which is received from the South-West monsoon (AGRI. ACTION PLAN (2016 -17) of Telangana).
Soils and Major growing Crops
Most of the part is red gravelly soils. Also various other soil types, like chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep black cotton soils also exist in Telangana. The major crops grown in Telngana are Rice, Maize Soya been, Cotton, Chillies and Turmeric.
Agriculture & allied activities contribute 15.3 % share in Gross State Value Added at current prices in 2016-17, consist of four sub-sectors viz., crop sector (53%), livestock (42%), forestry & logging (3%) and fishing & aquaculture (2%) in 2016 -17.
Source:Socio-economic outlook-2017 of Telangana
Telangana State has been divided into four agro-climatic zones based on the geographical characteristics such as rainfall, nature of soils, climate etc. The agricultural planning for each zone is supported with the research and recommendations of Regional Agricultural Research Stations of PJTSAU setup within each zone.
i) Northern Telangana Zone, (Adilabad, Nizambad and Karimnagar)
ii) Central Telangana Zone, (Medak, Warangal and Khamam)
iii) Southern Telangana Zone (Rangareddy Hyderabad, Nalgonda and Mahaboonagar)
iv) High Altitude and Tribal Zone.
Climate change effects on Agriculture
Agriculture is one of the critical areas vulnerable to Climate Change. Climate change in terms of rainfall variability is considered to be the greatest challenge. Both climate variability and change can lead to severe impacts on rainfed farming reducing yields and profitability. The year to year variations in South-West monsoon rainfall are directly affecting the production and productivity of rain-fed crops in Telangana. Moisture stress due to prolonged dry spells or thermal stress due to heat wave conditions also significantly affect the crop productivity when they occur in critical life stages of the crop.
EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON AGRICULTURE SECTOR
• Temperature fluctuations affect Rabi crops severely
• Decrease in area under crops on account of insufficient rainfall, particularly in the South- West Monsoon period.
• Dry land areas (parts of Mahabubnagar and Nalgonda) exist in the State where annual rainfall is less than 500 mm in Mahabubnagar whereas in Nalgonda annual rainfall is 560 mm and rain fed farming is not viable.
• Loss in fertility of soil in many areas due to excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides.
• Development of crop varieties resilient to heat, cold and water stress including breeder seed production.
• Replacement of inorganic fertilisers by bio-fertilisers.
• Assured credit facility, including for tenant farmers.
• Insurance against crop failures (not just for the bank loan component).
• Extension work for change of cropping timings and patterns, efficiency of water use, weather advisories to farmers, information on market prices etc.
• Intensive research work on stable agriculture in the context of climate change, in all its aspects.
• Establishment of field centres, data banks and germplasm banks.
• To disseminate the price forecast information.
• Standardization of fuel efficient irrigation pump sets.
• Retrofitting existing pump sets for higher energy efficiency.
INITIATIVES BY TELANGANA GOVERNMENT TO ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE
▶ Rainfed Area Development (RAD) is a component under National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA). NMSA has been formulated for enhancing agricultural productivity especially in rainfed areas focusing on integrated farming, water use efficiency, soil health management and synergizing resource conservation.
(AGRI. ACTION PLAN (2016 - 17) of Telangana)
INITIATIVES BY EPTRI
EPTRI, being a nodal agency for Climate change for the state of Telangana has secured a project " Resilient Agricultural Households through Adaptation to Climate change in Mahabubnagar and Nagar Kurnool districts, Telangana (RAH-ACT)" under National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC), from Ministry of Environment and Forest & Climate Change (MoEF & CC). The cost of the project is Rs 24 Crores. EPTRI is the executing entity and Department of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU) and International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) are the partner institutions. The Technical Advisory committee (TAC) members are drawn from these departments and NABARD, the implementing agency. The objective of the project is to enhance the livelihoods of farming community by implementing climate resilient agricultural interventions in 15 targeted villages in Mahabubnagar, Wanaparthy and Nagarkurnool Districts.
2) AGRICULTURE ACTION PLAN (2016 to 17) by DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE- TELANGANA- http://agri.telangana.gov.in/open_record_view.php?ID=119
3) Socio-economic outlook-2017 by planning department of Telangana- http://ecostat.telangana.gov.in/PDF/PUBLICATIONS/Socio_Economic_Outlook_2017.pdf